This book provides an authoritative review of many aspects ot current interest and progress in the field of microbial biotechnology. It includes 12 chapters contributed by 19 subiect experts on different aspects of microbial technology. Topics covering role of vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhizoe and symbiotic N2-fixation in microbial technology,lactic acid bacteria actinomycetes as antibiotics, medicinal importance of spices, gene diversity and genomic evolution bacterial communications, biotechnological interventions of new antimicrobials, biofuel production, biodeterioration of buildings, nanotechnology and bioinformatics, etc. have been ,especially included to project their use in the 21st century. The book covers the topics of postgraduate curriculum as well as for those in research field, keeping a balance between the fundamental and applied aspects. The book will serve as a handy review to all the students, teachers and researchers in the field of microbiology and biotechnology.